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The Fourth Month of Pregnancy

Physical Changes

  1. Moles and freckles may become darker with the increase in skin pigmentation. There is pigmentation around the nipples
  2. A dark line may appear down the centre of the stomach
  3. An increased appetite results in clothes getting tight
  4. The waistline starts to expand
  5. The baby bump begins to show as a gentle rounding of the stomach
  6. The breasts may still be of normal size but they will grow in the coming weeks.

Features of the Baby

  • Length: 6 inches
  • Weight :  135 gms
  • This is a period of rapid growth for the baby.
  • Fine hair appears on the body and face
  • The skin is transparent showing the blood vessels underneath
  • Joints have formed and hard bones are developing
  • Sex organs are mature enough to disclose the sex
  • Baby sucks the thumb
  • Baby’s heart beats twice as fast as the mother
  • Baby moves around vigorously though the mother still cannot feel it
  • The baby has a neck of its own
  • The baby’s fingers have their own finger print pattern
  • The head is still large for the body.

Suggestions

  • Both the partners must give up smoking if not done already.
  • As the appetite is growing the mother needs to be more careful of what she is eating and avoid unhealthy food. It pays to be sensible and watch the weight.
  • It is a good idea to check with the doctor who may recommend iron supplements around this time. Iron supplements should be taken on a full stomach and preferably with a good source of vitamin c to increase their bioavailability.
  • Normally after the first trimester the folic acid supplements are stopped.
  • It is time to make a second visit to the antenatal clinic where there would be an ultrasound scan; a serum screening test and amniocentesis if there are any chances of the baby having any abnormality.

Question of the day

How can you be sure that the baby is normal?

The chance of the baby being abnormal is very slim as most abnormalities occur in the initial weeks and end in a miscarriage. By now the baby is fully formed and if the parents ensure a good lifestyle, which provides a safe environment for the baby, the risks can be reduced further.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

The Second Month

The second month is the time when the parents to be would actually know for sure that they are expecting a baby. As soon as the news is out, there is all sorts of advice from all and sundry. Before you get all worked up hearing so much stuff, it is important to differentiate fact from fiction.

Week Five To Six

Around this time the embryo is about half an inch, to put it simply, the size of an apple pip so you can ignore advice about eating for two!

Features

  • The embryo is floating in a fluid filled sac
  • It has a simple brain, spine and central nervous system
  • Four pits have appeared on the head which will later become the baby’s eyes and ears.
  • The digestive system is beginning to form along with a mouth and jaw
  • The stomach and chest are developing and a large bulge in front of the chest (the heart) starts beating by the end of the week
  • Blood vessels are forming
  • Four tiny limb buds have developed

Week 7

The baby is now half an inch which is like the size of a small grape

Features

  • A face is forming, while the eyes on the sides of the head are visible in a closed state
  • Arms and legs are clearly visible with clefts at the end which later become fingers and toes
  • The heart has started beating and circulating blood
  • Bone cells are beginning to develop
  • Though not fully formed, the embryo has lungs, intestine, kidney, liver and internal sex organs.

Week 8

The baby is now one inch which is roughly the size of a strawberry

Features

  • The embryo is now called a fetus
  • All major internal organs have developed though not fully
  • There is a recognizable face, a nose, nostrils and jaws and mouth which also has a tongue
  • The inner parts of the ears are forming
  • Fingers and toes are becoming more distinct though joined
  • Shoulders, elbows, hips and knees are detectable
  • The baby moves a lot, though the movement cannot be felt yet by the mother

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Pregnancy

The Sixth Month

The sixth month is often the best month of pregnancy as a feeling of happiness and contentment shows on the face of the mother. As a mother you are much relaxed now and your body is adapted to pregnancy. If the weight gain has not been constant until now, this is the month when the expectant mother could put on a lot of weight.

There will be a steady weight gain of 500 gm per week, though if the mother was underweight at the start of the pregnancy, she could gain weight even faster.

Changes in the mother

  • The spurt in body weight makes loose fitted clothes more comfortable for the mother to be
  • There might be intolerance to heat and excessive sweating.
  • There might be increased thirst.
  • There may be water retention in the body
  • The areolas become more prominent
  • The baby bump becomes much bigger

Features of the Baby

  • Length: 13 inches
  • Weight:  570 gms
  • The skin has sweat glands
  • Muscles of the arms and legs have developed
  • The baby can cough and hiccup
  • Baby’s eyelids are still sealed
  • Since baby can hear, they develop likes and dislikes for sounds
  • Baby can open and close his mouth and even frown
  • Baby can make a fist and kick and punch
  • Baby has erratic sleeping patterns
  • Baby’s taste buds have started to form
  • The skin is gradually becoming thicker.

Do’s & Don’ts

  • Put your feet up as much as possible during the day
  • Continue gentle exercises regularly
  • Practice breathing, meditation and relaxation techniques
  • Talk to your doctor regarding breast feeding concerns in case you have flat or inverted nipples
  • Working mothers must ask for a maternity certificate at the clinic.
  • Invest in a good pregnancy bra. Check your size regularly as your breasts will continue to swell throughout pregnancy. If the breasts become very heavy, wear a light weight bra even in the night time.

On the completion of 6 months you are becoming more prepared as a mother. Meet your doctor on the planned visits as he/she is qualified to assess whether your weight gain is appropriate and is going as desired. Examination of the baby through the ultrasound is also beneficial is assessing the growth rate.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Babies That Need Special Care

Asking questions

Ask the doctor or midwife any questions that might be disturbing you. You can learn about the functions of the various equipments which will make you comfortable with them. Also do not be scared to ask questions as the baby is frail and you are scared of the reply. Modern intensive care can help even babies born before 28 weeks to survive.

Babies can be admitted to neonatal care for a number of reasons, including when they: 

  • Premature or early born babies – 1 baby in 13 is born early, and babies born before 34 weeks may need extra help with breathing, feeding and keeping warm
  • Babies who are extremely small and have a low birth weight
  • Suffer from infection
  • Babies having diabetic mother
  • Babies suffering from jaundice soon after birth
  • Babies born with difficulty
  • Babies who have had a complicated surgery

Getting to know ypur baby

It is very important for you to spend as much time with your baby as possible. Your baby needs as much love and attention as any normal healthy baby. Many hospitals have special rooms for you to stay so that you can stay near your baby and take part in her day to day activities. She may look frail and you may be scared to touch her. Though some babies cannot be taken out of incubators, you can still talk to her and stroke her through the portholes in the sides. You may even be allowed to change her nappy and help dress her up. Almost all babies respond to loving handling

Feeding

If the baby is able to suck, you will be asked to feed her normally; else she will be fed through a tube passed through her mouth down to her stomach.

Jaundice

Many new born babies develop a mild form of jaundice. Their skin and white portion of the eyes turn slightly yellow. The liver of the baby is not fully developed, and bilirubin pigment accumulates faster in the blood than the liver can dispose it. The jaundice normally clears up on its own in a couple of days. The baby may be sleepier and you may have to wake it up for feeds. It helps to expose her to natural sunlight. Only in a few severe cases, the baby is taken into special care.

Incubators

Extremely small babies are nursed in incubators rather than cots to keep them warm. However, hospital staff allows you to contact with your baby.

Some incubators have open tops, but if your baby’s incubator doesn’t, you can put your hands through the holes in the side of the incubator to stroke and touch them.

If your baby requires special care it is normal to feel anxious do not hesitate to talk to the doctor or hospital staff about it. Seek proper advice from doctor so that your child recovers fast and achieves proper developmental milestones .Your child will turn normal within few days and attain normal growth patterns as any other child.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Feeding Your Bundle of Joy

As soon as you welcome your little bundle of joy, you have to make a decision about feeding the baby, breast or bottle. Feeding your baby should come out of love not out of a sense of duty.

Please give adequate thought to decide on which method you would want to feed the baby. If you later want to switch from bottle to breast, it may not be possible, as without the stimulation of the baby sucking, the breasts may stop producing milk. Always bear in mind, whichever method you opt for, your love and attention is as much important to your baby as the milk you feed.

Breast Feeding

  • There is no substitute for the colostrum that your breasts produce in the first few days. This equips the baby with antibodies needed to fight infection in the early months.
  • Breast milk meets a baby’s needs perfectly with the right kind of nutrients.
  • It is easily digested
  • It is naturally hygienic
  • It is available at the right temperature for the baby.
  • It helps in developing a stronger bond between the mother and the child.
  • It helps the mother shrink back to the pre pregnancy size soon.

Bottle Feeding

Though a bottle fed baby is more at risk of picking up micro-organisms that may cause diarrhea, there are some advantages: 

  • It helps your partner take an active role in feeding the baby
  • You can monitor how much milk your baby has taken
  • A mother’s tiredness or illness, which may reduce breast milk supply, does not affect bottle fed babies.

Sterilizing and Good Hygiene

Bottle fed babies are at higher risk for bacteria entering their bodies through milk causing gastro enteritis which may be life threatening in a young baby. You must wash and sterilize everything that comes into contact with your baby’s feed.

Washing

  • Use hot soapy water to wash all bottle, teats, caps, jug, funnel , spoon and knife thoroughly
  • Scrub well around the neck, screw , thread and the insides of the bottle to remove all traces of milk
  • Use salt inside the teats and move it around by squeezing and massaging the teats to remove any milk traces.
  • Rinse all the equipments under running water.

Sterilizing

  • Fill a large vessel with cold water and add sterilizing liquid.
  • Put the equipments in and fill the bottles to make them stay immersed.
  • Jiggle the items around until you see no air bubbles at all. Put the float in and the lid on
  • Leave for at least the minimum time
  • Take out items as needed and rinse in boiled water
  • Drain on kitchen paper.

Sterilizing By Boiling

Wash all the equipments then boil for 25 minutes. Keep everything fully submerged.

  • Electric Sterilizer

This just takes the bottles and teats. You must wash everything well first.

If you are exercising adequate care, you need not worry too much about bottle feeding too. Breast or bottle is an independent decision which the parents should take and enjoy the whole experience of welcoming a child into your family.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Getting Back to Normal

After delivery, your familiar bump may be gone but your tummy won’t be completely flat yet. You may feel some discomfort in the first days after birth. Talk to your doctor if something bothers you.

After pains

Once you start breastfeeding your baby, you may feel stomach cramps. This is a good sign that your womb is contracting back to its pre pregnancy size. The pains may last several days

What to do

If the contractions are severe, you need to talk to your doctor who may prescribe a mild pain killer.

Bladder

In the first days, the body loses the extra fluid gained during pregnancy so you may need to urinate more often.

What to do

  • You may be sore post delivery and urinating may be difficult, but try to do it as soon as possible after birth
  • Get up and about to encourage the flow
  • Soak in a warm bath. Don’t worry if you pass urine in water as urine is sterile. Wash yourself well afterwards
  • Sometimes turning the water tap on induces urine flow
  • If you have stitches, pour warm water over them as you pass urine which will give you freshness and a germ free environment.

Bleeding

You may have vaginal bleeding for as long as two to six weeks. It stops earlier for breast feeding mothers. The discharge is heavy and bright red at first and gradually slows down and becomes brownish in color.

What to do

  • Wear sanitary napkins to catch the flow.
  • Avoid using tampons at this stage as they may cause infection.

Bowels

You may not need to empty your bowels for a couple of days after birth

What to do

  • As soon as you can, start walking as this helps the bowel movements to start.
  • Drink plenty of water
  • Eat high fiber food
  • When you want to empty your bowel do so immediately but don’t push too much
  • Though you won’t open up any stitches while clearing the bowels, you may still choose to hold a clean sanitary napkin against the area.

Stitches

These may be very sore for a day or two. Within a week, the external ones fall off and the dissolving ones dissolve.

What to do

  • Practice pelvic floor exercises to speed up the healing
  • Relax in a warm bath to keep the stitches clean. Dry them thoroughly with a hair dryer on cool setting
  • Soothe soreness by applying an ice pack to the affected area
  • Lie down or sit on a rubber ring to ease the pressure off the stitches.

Post Partum Blues

Many women feel low after delivery, mostly when the milk comes out. This may happen due to

  • Hormonal changes in the body
  • The feeling of anticlimax that happens after birth

What to do

  • The pleasure of having a baby will more than compensate for the after effects of birth.
  • Post natal concerns are temporary and are expected to vanish soon
  • If you feel that it is prolonged, lasting more than four weeks, see your doctor.
  • If  the depression is severe, see your doctor

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Comforting a Crying Baby

Babies have crying bouts throughout the first year as this is their only means of communicating for food and comfort.

When your baby cries, your first instinct will be to pick them up. While there have been conflicting views on this topic, let your instinct guide you and do not be afraid of spoiling the baby.

Your baby is new to the world and needs to know that you are reliable and always available. However, if you feel that your baby is crying a lot and that it is making you lose patience or get over tired, get in touch with other mothers, self help and support groups or voluntary organizations which can help you find ways to cope. Let’s explore reasons why the baby may cry and what solutions are available to you.

Why Your Baby May Be Crying

If the crying sounds pitiful or different from normal, the baby may be unwell or a blocked nose could be the cause of the problem. Other possible reasons may be:

  • Nappy rash or sore bottom
  • Colic
  • Being too hot or too cold
  • During the process of bathing or dressing etc
  • Your own bad mood may cause your baby to react with crying bouts.
  • Too much fussing may be upsetting the baby

Ways to Pacify a Crying Baby

  • If you fear your baby may be ill, do not hesitate to call a doctor as he may prescribe some remedies such nasal drops to help the baby breathe better and thus calm down
  • If the baby has a sore bottom, take the nappy off and clean the bottom thoroughly. You may leave off the nappy for the rest of the day.
  • If your baby is suffering from colic, try not to resort to medications at first and soothe the baby by rocking or take the baby out for a walk around the block.
  • Avoid over heating or over chilling the baby’s room. The ideal room temperature for the baby is what is comfortable for lightly clothed adults.
  • The baby may be hungry or thirsty so offer a feed or water
  • The baby may need attention through a cuddle or may have gas that is relieved by rocking rhythmically in your arms or in a rocking chair
  • Wrap the baby firmly in a shawl, tucking the ends to make a bundle. This process called a ‘swaddle’ makes a baby feel safe and secure.
  • Another way to calm the baby is by gently patting the tummy or back to calm them or to relieve gas in the tummy.
  • A pacifier or something to suck ,which is sterilized properly is another common remedy
  • Babies love bright colorful things so distracting them with a picture book, a mirror or a new toy may also work.

Crying is a normal process, which all babies show. However, ask your health care provider if your child is showing continuous bouts of crying in spite of all your efforts. Doctor can perform an examination which can depict some medical condition which you might not be able to figure it out.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Caesarean Section

If it is a planned operation, you can ask for an epidural anesthesia from the doctor, so that you remain awake during the delivery period and can hold the baby immediately after birth. However, in a general anesthesia you make wake up feeling very groggy and disoriented.

Let the doctor decide on a general or epidural anesthesia if it is an emergency operation.

Some of the reasons for cesarean section:

Here are the reasons why you may have a planned or emergency caesarean, rather than a vaginal birth:

  • History of one caesarean section.
  • Baby is in a bottom-down, or breech, position.
  • Baby is in a sideways (transverse) position, or keeps changing his position (unstable lie).
  • You might  be having low-lying placenta (placenta praevia).
  • Medical condition like as heart disease or diabetes.
  • You have lost a baby in the past, either before or during labor.
  • You’re expecting twins or more.
  • Your baby is not growing as well as he should be in your womb (uterus).
  • You have severe pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, making it dangerous to delay the birth.

What is done:

  • Your pubic hair is shaved
  • A drip is put in your arm
  • A tube is inserted in your bladder
  • You will be given anesthesia
  • A screen is set up between you and the surgeon in case of an epidural anesthesia
  • Generally the cut is made horizontally just above the pubic hairline and is almost invisible on healing.
  • The surgeon drains away the amniotic fluid
  • The baby is lifted out, sometimes using forceps
  • You get to hold the baby as the placenta is delivered
  • The start of the surgery to birth takes about 5 minutes
  • A further 20 minutes are spent on stitching you up
  • You or your partner can hold the baby while the surgeon stitches you up.

After The Operation

  • You will be asked to walk almost soon after birth
  • The incision can be painful in the initial few days so ask for pain relief
  • Don’t be scared that your moving around might open up the cut.
  • Stand tall and cup your hands over the wound
  • Two days after the operation begin gentle exercises. Ask your doctor to guide you
  • You can have a bath once the dressing is removed
  • If the stitches are soluble, they need not be removed, else they would be removed about five days after birth
  • You will start feeling much better after about a week
  • Don’t strain yourself for at least six weeks
  • The scar usually fades in three to six months.

How to Breast Feed after a Caesarean Section

Put a few pillows beside you and support the baby over them. This way the baby will not be resting on your wound and you can breast feed him comfortably.

Risks and Complications for the Mother

According to the American pregnancy association some of the risk factors associated with cesarean are:

  • Infection: It may occur due to the incision due to any kind of infection
  •  Hemorrhage or increased blood loss: There is more blood loss in a cesarean delivery than with a vaginal delivery. This can lead to anemia or a blood transfusion (1 to 6 women per 100 require a blood transfusion.
  • Injury to organs: Possible injury to organs such as the bowel or bladder.
  • Adhesions: Scar tissue may form inside the pelvic region causing blockage and pain. Adhesions can also lead to future pregnancy complications such as placenta previa or placental abruption
  • Extended hospital stay: After a cesarean, the normal stay in the hospital is 3-5 days after the birth, if there are no complications.
  • Extended recovery time: The amount of time needed for recovery after a cesarean can range from weeks to months. Extended recovery can have an impact on bonding time with your baby (1 in 14 report incisional pain six months or more after surgery4).
  • Reactions to medications: There can be a negative reaction to the anesthesia given during a cesarean or negative reaction to pain medication given after the procedure.
  • Risk of additional surgeries: Includes possible hysterectomy, bladder repair or another cesarean.
  • Maternal mortality: The maternal mortality rate for a cesarean is higher than with a vaginal birth.
  • Emotional reactions: Some women who have had a cesarean report feeling negatively about their birth experience and may have trouble with initial bonding with their baby5.

Risks and Complications for the Baby

  • Premature birth: If gestational age was not calculated correctly, a baby delivered by cesarean could be delivered too early and have low birth weight.
  • Breathing problems: When delivered by cesarean, a baby is more likely to have breathing and respiratory problems. Some studies show the existence of greater need for assistance with breathing and immediate care after a cesarean than with a vaginal delivery.
  • Fetal injury: Very rarely, the baby may be nicked or cut during the incision (on average, 1 or 2 babies per 100 will be cut during the surgery.

Cesarean section is a normal procedure these days ask your doctor if you have any apprehensions regarding the same. Some of the above mentioned risks do not happen in all the cases and can be easily dealt with correct medical intervention.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Assisted Delivery

(Use of Forceps & Suction)

Assisted delivery procedure is used when

  • The mother is too tired and cannot push further
  • The mother cannot push the baby out probably because the baby has a big head
  • The baby shows signs of distress during labor
  • The baby is breech (poised to come out buttocks or feet first)
  • The baby is premature and the head needs protection from the pressure exerted during the birth process

Forceps

  • The mother is given local anesthesia in the pelvic floor area
  • Episiotomy (a small cut near the vaginal opening) is  done
  • The forceps are positioned on either side of the baby’s head and gently pulled to deliver the baby
  • The mother can help by pushing
  • The rest of the body of the baby is delivered normally
  • The forceps form a cage around the baby’s head protecting it from pressure.

Vacuum

  • A small metal cup is connected to a vacuum pump
  • It is passed into the vagina and attached to the baby’s head.
  • The baby is gently pulled through the birth canal
  • The mother can help by pushing

To avoid chances of having an assisted delivery:

  • Stay active during pregnancy
  • Practice pelvic floor exercises
  • Keep upright posture during delivery.

Are there any risks associated with a forceps delivery?

Forceps delivery is a common procedure and you should not worry if your doctor is doing the same. The benefits of correct use of forceps overrides the risks such as delayed birth, or those of a cesarean delivery for certain women who may have their own health risks.

However, there are some possible risks to the mother include:

  • Perineum Pain (the soft tissue between your vagina and your anus)
  • Tears in the lower Genital Tract Tears and Abrasions (this is also an expected risk in non-forceps vaginal deliveries.)  If your doctor performs an episiotomy to repair tears, there is also a risk of postpartum bleeding and infection.)
  • Difficulty  in  Urinating
  • Short- or long-Term Urinary or Bowel Incontinence (involuntary urination or defecation)
  • Secondary Anemia Due to Blood Loss
  • Third Degree Tear
  • Injuries to the Bladder and/or Urethra
  • Uterine Rupture — when the uterine wall is torn, which could allow the baby or placenta to be pushed into the mother’s abdominal cavity
  • Pelvic Organ Prolapse (Tearing, or weakening of the muscles and ligaments supporting pelvic organs, causing pelvic organs to drop lower in the pelvis.)

Possible risks to your baby include:

  • Facial Injuries Due to the Pressure of the Forceps
  • Facial Palsy (weakness in the facial muscles which can be temporary or permanent)
  • Eye Injuries (including minor external eye trauma, strabismus (crossed eye), and other eye injuries)
  • Skull Fracture
  • Bleeding Within the Skull
  • Seizures

According to mayo clinic some of the risk factors involved with vacuum delivery are:

  •  Pain in the perineum — the tissue between your vagina and your anus — after delivery
  • Lower genital tract tears and wounds
  • Short-term difficulty urinating or emptying the bladder
  • Short-term or long-term urinary or fecal incontinence (involuntary urination or defecation)
  • Anemia — a condition in which you don’t have enough healthy red blood cells to carry adequate oxygen to your tissues — due to blood loss during delivery
  • Weakening of the muscles and ligaments supporting your pelvic organs, causing pelvic organs to drop lower in the pelvis (pelvic organ prolapse)

Possible risks to your baby include:

  • Scalp wounds
  • A higher risk of getting the baby’s shoulder stuck after the head has been delivered, which could lead to an injury to the network of nerves that sends signals from the spine to the shoulder, arm and hand (brachial plexus), or a collarbone fracture
  • Skull fracture
  • Bleeding within the skull

However, it is important to note that these procedures are quite safe and are done by doctors usually these days. It is a normal procedure performed by an obstetrician and you need not worry if you undergo the same.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy

Labor and Normal Delivery

You will be better prepared to deal with labor if you know exactly what will happen to your body at each stage. It is always better if you can practice relaxation and breathing techniques beforehand to help you cope with labor.

Signs of Labor

  • The waters breaks:

The bag of fluid that surrounds the baby breaks. It may be either a sudden flood of water or a trickle of fluid if the baby’s head has engaged.

What should be done?

You need to go to the hospital at once even if contractions haven’t started as you might catch an infection. Call the hospital at once and in the mean time wear a sanitary napkin to absorb the flow.

  • Vaginal bleeding:

Thick blood stained mucus that blocks the neck of the womb passes out of the vagina. This may happen during the early stages of labor.

What should be done?

The show may happen a few days before labor starts. Wait until the waters break or you experience back or stomach pain.

  • Contractions:

This can start as a mild back ache or shooting pain down your thighs. As time passes, you may experience stomach contractions which seem like bad period pains.

What should be done?

When you start feeling the contractions, see how regular they are. If the contractions are coming less frequently, less than every 5 minutes or so and are not so painful, you don’t need to go to the hospital immediately. Initial labour lasts a normal of 12 to 14 hours and it is better to spend some of this time in the comfort of your home. Take a warm bath if your waters haven’t broken. Move around a bit and take rest as and when you feel like.

  • False starts:

Braxton and Hicks contractions starts very early in pregnancy as the womb keeps contacting throughout. In the final weeks, these may become really strong making you think you are in labour. In labour, the contractions are very regular and grow stronger and more frequent with passing time.

First Stage

In this stage the muscles of the womb contract to open up the cervix to allow the baby to pass through at birth. This takes around 10 to 12 hours for the first baby.

Ways to help yourself

  • Keep moving between contractions
  • During contractions take up a comfortable position
  • Stay as upright as possible
  • Concentrate on your breathing to calm your mind
  • Sing or moan and groan to release pain
  • Take one contraction at a time and don’t think about others to follow
  • Pass water often

Transition

The most difficult time is the end of the first stage when the contractions are the strongest. They last for about a minute and are a minute apart; this stage may last for about half an hour

Second Stage

Once the cervix has dilated and you can push, the second stage has begun. Pushing is hard work but each effort brings your baby’s birth closer. This stage usually lasts about an hour for the first baby.

Third Stage

During or just after birth you will be given a syntometrine injection in your thigh which makes the womb contract strongly and delivers the placenta almost immediately.

After Birth

You will be cleaned up and stitched if needed. The baby will be weighed and measured. The umbilical cord will be clamped and cut

Birth is the climax of labor and your baby has finally arrived. You can now touch and cuddle and feel a great sense of relief along with a protective urge towards the new born.

To read more on Pregnancy, click on the link below,

Pregnancy