Snake Bite

First Aid: Snake Bite by Famhealth

A snake bite is an injury caused by the bite of a snake, especially a venomous snake.

Symptoms

  • Visual of 2 puncture wounds
  • Redness
  • Swelling
  • Severe pain at the area
  • Vomiting
  • Trouble seeing
  • Tingling of the limbs

Treatment

  • Washing the wound with soap and water
  • Antivenom

Prevention

  • Protective footwear
  • Avoiding areas where snakes live
  • Not handling snakes

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First Aid

First Aid for Dog Bite

First Aid for Dog Bite by Famhealth

A dog bite can lead to rabies or tetanus infection. Immediate medical care is required when the bite is from a dog that has, or might have, rabies.

Symptoms

Symptoms of infection include redness, swelling, increased pain and oozing. A doctor should look at these symptoms right away.

India accounts for 20,000 of the 45,000 deaths due to rabies every year. Over 95 percent of the time rabies virus being transmitted through dog bites.

Treatments

Always remember it’s very important to see a doctor, especially if an unfamiliar dog bit you, the bite is deep, you can’t stop the bleeding, or there are any signs of infection (redness, swelling, warmth, pus).

Treatment at home.

  • Place a clean towel over the injury to stop any bleeding.
  • Try to keep the injured area elevated.
  • Wash the bite carefully with soap and water.
  • Apply a sterile bandage to the wound.
  • Apply antibiotic ointment to the injury every day to prevent infection.

When you go to a doctor to treat the dog bite, be prepared for answering these questions:-

  • Do you know the owner of the dog?
  • If so, is the dog up to date on all vaccinations, including rabies?
  • Did the bite occur because the dog was provoked, or was the dog unprovoked?
  • What health conditions do you have? People with diabetes, liver disease, illnesses that suppress the immune system, and other health conditions may be at greater risk for a more severe infection.

Prevention

Steps to prevent dog bite.

  • When choosing a dog for a family pet, pick one with a good temperament.
  • Stay away from any dogs you don’t know.
  • Never leave young children alone with a dog — especially an unfamiliar one.
  • Don’t try to play with any dog that is eating or feeding her puppies.
  • Whenever you approach a dog, do so slowly, and give the dog the chance to approach you.
  • If a dog becomes aggressive, do not run away or scream. Stay calm, move slowly, and don’t make eye contact with the dog.

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First Aid

Bee Stings/ Insect Bite

Bee Stings/ Insect Bite by Famhealth

Not all bites or stings are the same. You will need different first aid treatment and medical care depending on what type of creature has bitten or stung you. Some species can cause more damage than others. Some people also have allergies that raise the risk of a serious reaction. Here’s how to recognize and treat the symptoms of bites and stings from insects, spiders, and snakes.

Common Symptoms

The common symptoms are redness, swelling of face, lips or throat, pain, itching, hives, abdominal cramps, nausea and vomiting, breathing problems and shock.

First aid treatment

If someone shows signs of a severe allergic reaction, help them get emergency medical attention and follow the steps in the next section. If they show no signs of a severe reaction, treat the site of the bite or sting for minor symptoms:

Step 1:

If the insect’s stinger is still embedded in their skin, remove it by gently scraping a flat-edged object, such as a credit card, across their skin. Avoid using tweezers to remove the stinger, since squeezing it may release more venom.

Step 2:

Wash the area of the bite with soap and water.

Step 3:

Place a cold compress or ice pack on the area for about 10 minutes at a time to help reduce pain and swelling. Wrap any ice or ice packs in a clean cloth to protect their skin.

Step 4:

Apply calamine lotion or a paste of baking soda and water to the area several times a day to help relieve itching and pain. Calamine lotion is a type of antihistamine cream.

Emergency treatment for a severe allergic reaction

If you suspect someone may be having a severe allergic reaction:

  • Ask someone else to call emergency services, right away. If you’re alone, contact emergency services before you provide other treatment.
  • Ask the person whether they carry an epinephrine auto-injector. If they do, retrieve it for them and help them use it according to the label directions.
  • Encourage them to remain calm, lie down quietly with their legs elevated, and stay still. If they start to vomit, turn them onto their side to allow the vomit to drain and prevent choking.
  • If they become unconscious and stop breathing, begin CPR. Continue it until medical help arrives.

To avoid making matters worse, don’t apply a tourniquet. You should also avoid giving them anything to eat or drink.

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First Aid

Burns

First Aid: Dealing with Burns by Famhealth

What are burns?

Burns are damage to skin and deeper tissue caused by contact with fire, heat, electricity, radiation, or caustic chemicals.

Burns are classified according to the depth and extent of the skin damage, in the following way.

  • First-degree burns: the skin is red, painful and very sensitive to touch. The damaged skin may be slightly moist from leakage of the fluid in the deeper layers of the skin.
  • Second-degree burns: the damage is deeper and blisters usually appear on the skin. The skin is still painful and sensitive.
  • Third-degree burns: the tissues in all layers of the skin are dead. Usually there are no blisters. The burned surface can appear normal, white, black (charred), or bright red from blood in the bottom of the wound. Damage to the sensory nerves in the skin can mean that third-degree burns may be quite painless as the burned skin lacks sensation to touch. A skin graft is usually necessary for significant areas of third-degree burns.

First aid for burns

The first thing to do is to limit the extent of the damage, and prevent the burn from becoming worse.

  • Taking care that you do not put yourself at risk from the cause of the burns, move the person away from the danger area. Smother flames with a blanket or douse the person with water but beware of electricity or caustic chemicals.
  • Remove clothing or jewellery from the burned area but don’t try to peel back any clothing that is stuck to the skin.
  • The burnt area must be cooled by being placed under tepid running water. The water should not be unpleasantly cold.
  • Keep the damaged area under running water for at least one hour, or longer if the pain has not stopped. Up to four hours of this treatment can be beneficial. However, in severe burns it is more important to get the person to hospital for treatment, so don’t let this delay calling the ambulance.
  • Meanwhile keep the person warm a lot of heat can be lost from large burns so put a blanket or clothing around the non-injured areas.
  • First-degree burns, eg mild sunburn, may not require this treatment although it may help to soothe discomfort.
  • Put cling film or a plastic bag over the burn before moving the person to hospital, but don’t wrap the cling film tightly round a limb.
  • Do not put any creams on the burn at this stage, but you can give the person simple pain relief such as paracetamol.

What complications can occur?

  • When skin is burned, it loses its ability to protect, which increases the risk of infection. So it is important that the damaged area be thoroughly cleansed within the first six hours and that the area is kept clean while it is healing.
  • If, after a few days, there are signs of an infection – ie the skin is becoming increasingly red, hot, and swollen, and the victim experiences a throbbing pain or feels generally unwell or has a fever – contact a doctor or your practice nurse.
  • Severe burns can cause scarring.
  • In cases of extensive severe burns, the body may lose large quantities of fluid. This can disturb the blood circulation and cause problems with the body’s salt balance. As a result the person may go into ‘shock’ with a low blood pressure and rapid pulse. Such injuries should be assessed at your local Accident and Emergency department.
  • Heat exhaustion and heatstroke can also occur if the body temperature rises too high (for example, after excessive exposure to hot sun, often with sunburn). Watch out for extreme tiredness, rapid pulse, headache, and confusion. Help the person to cool down in the shade, with tepid water to drink and get urgent medical help if you are worried.

What can be done to prevent burns?

Be fire-conscious in the home. The kitchen is the most dangerous room in the house, and the most likely place for burns and scalds to occur. If you have small children in the house, fit a safety gate to keep them out of the kitchen.

When cooking, keep small children away from hot drinks, pans and kettles, barbecues and other open flames. Always put pans to the back of the hob if possible and turn handles to the back away from where small hands might reach.

Never throw water over oil fires, such as in a chip pan, because this will cause a fire explosion that can have severe consequences. Instead the fire should be smothered by covering the pan with a damp cloth.

Buy a proper fire-smothering blanket and keep it somewhere in the kitchen where it is easily accessible.

Hot water in the bathroom is another risk – so when there are small children in the house, fill baths by running the cold tap first. Fit a mixer to the taps and never leave a child alone in or near the bath.

Always used a fixed guard around open fires in the house.

Bonfires and camp fires are another cause of serious burns.

Never light them by throwing petrol and a lighted match at them. Behave responsibly around them and keep young children well away.

It’s become a popular game among young people at music festivals to throw gas cyclinders from barbeques into the camp fires.

This is extremely dangerous and has resulted in some very serious burn injuries, sometimes among innocent bystanders.

Festival goers should be warned against this behaviour.

Take standard advice to protect yourself from sunburn – Slip, Slop, Slap!

Slip on baggy clothing such as an oversized T shirt, slop on suncream and slap on a hat.

Keep children in the shade especially in intense sun in the middle of the day, and frequently reapply high sun protection factor (SPF) suncream especially if they are in and out of the swimming pool

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First Aid

First Aid for Drowning

First Aid for Drowning by Famhealth

Get Help

  • Notify a lifeguard, if one is close. If not, ask someone to call 102 ,108.
  • If you are alone, follow the steps below.

Move the Person

  • Take the person out of the water.

Check for Breathing

  • Place your ear next to the person’s mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your cheek?
  • Look to see if the person’s chest is moving.

If the Person is Not Breathing, Check Pulse

  • Check the person’s pulse for 10 seconds.

If There is No Pulse, Start CPR

  • Carefully place person on back.
  • For an adult or child, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant, place two fingers on the breastbone.
  • For an adult or child, press down at least 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs. For an infant, press down about 1 and 1/2 inches. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.
  • Do chest compressions only, at the rate of 100-120 per minute or more. Let the chest rise completely between pushes.
  • Check to see if the person has started breathing.

Repeat if Person Is Still Not Breathing

  • If you’ve been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin.
  • Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim’s mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.
  • Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions.

Mouth-to-mouth resuscitation for a drowning victim :

  • Turn the drowning person’s head to the side, allowing any water to drain from his or her mouth and nose. Turn the head back to the center.
  • Begin mouth-to-mouth resuscitation on land, if possible, or in the water if the injured person needs immediate life-and-death measures.
  • Strongly breathe four times into the mouth of the injured person as you pinch his or her nose. This helps air get past any water that is clogging the breathing passageways and the lungs.
  • After four strong breaths, put your ear near the mouth and watch the chest for any breathing movement.
  1. Check the pulse for signs of life.
  2. Repeat the cycle.

***You’re not out of the water once the drowning victim starts to breathe and choke. In fact, the first 48 hours after a drowning incident can be the most dangerous. Complications resulting from water exposure—pneumonia, infection, heart failure—can all occur during this time. Therefore, you should always take a drowning victim to the hospital.

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Hot or Cold Compress for Injuries

Hot or Cold Compress for Injuries by Famhealth

There is so much confusion about this issue because therapeutic icing and heating — cryotherapy and thermotherapy — are rational, cheap, easy, safe self-treatment options for many common painful problems.

Ice is for fresh injuries, and heat is for stiff, aching muscles.

Ice is for injuries — calming down damaged superficial tissues that are inflamed, red, hot, swollen, pain or if it is bleeding/ post surgical pain. The inflammatory process is a healthy, normal, natural process; that also happens to be incredibly painful and more biologically stubborn than it needs to be. Icing is mostly just a mild, drugless way of dulling the pain of inflammation and taking swelling down a bit. Examples: a freshly pulled muscle.

Heat is for muscles, chronic pain, and stress — taking the edge off symptoms like muscle aching and stiffness, which have many unclear causes, but trigger points are probably one of the usual suspects. Chronic pain, especially back pain, often involves lots of tension, anxiety, hyper vigilance, and sensitization, and comfortable heat can soothe a jangled mind and nervous system. Stress and fear are major factors in many painful problems, of course.

Alternating between applications of ice and heat is called contrasting therapy. It’s extremely stimulating and is mostly used to facilitate injury recovery, with unknown efficacy.

What ice and heat are not for

Both ice and heat have the potential to do some minor, temporary harm when used poorly. Heat can make inflammation significantly worse. Ice can aggravate symptoms of tightness and stiffness; it can also just make any pain worse when it’s unwanted.

Both ice and heat are pointless or worse when unwanted: icing when you’re already shivering, or heating when you’re already sweating. The brain may interpret an excess of either one as a threat, but icing is more threatening and when brains think there’s a threat, they may also amp up the pain. Ice seems to be feel more threatening to most people.

Trigger points (painfully sensitive spots) can be surprisingly intense and easily mistaken for “iceable” injury and inflammation. But if you ice trigger points, they may burn and ache even more acutely. This mistake is made particularly often with low back pain and neck pain — the very conditions people often try to treat with ice.

Heat and inflammation are the other particularly bad combination.

How to use Ice

After an acute injury, such as an ankle sprain, or after activities that aggravate a chronic injury, such as shin splints.

Use an ice bag with cubed ice, ice pack or ice massage. When using an ice pack that does not have real ice cubes,use a thin towel between the ice pack and the skin to prevent frostbite.

Do not use ice longer than 20 minutes at a time. More time spent icing does not mean more relief. Be sure the area goes numb, then make sure the skin returns completely back to normal before reapplying.

How to apply heat

Before activities that aggravate​ chronic injuries, such as muscle strains. Heat can help loosen tissues and relax injured areas.

Apply heat using a heating pad or a hot wet towel.

No more than 20 minutes at a time. Never apply heat while sleeping. Be careful not to burn yourself.

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First Aid

How to Remove Water from your Ear

How to Remove Water from your Ear by Famhealth

If water does get trapped in your ear, you can try several at-home remedies for relief:

Jiggle your earlobe

This first method may shake the water out of your ear right away. Gently tug or jiggle your earlobe while tilting your head in a downward motion toward your shoulder. You can also try shaking your head from side to side while in this position.

Make gravity do the work

With this technique, gravity should help the water drain from your ear.Lie on your side for a few minutes, with your head on a towel to absorb the water. The water may slowly drain out of your ear.

Create a vacuum

This method will create a vacuum that may draw the water out.

  • Tilt your head sideways, and rest your ear onto your cupped palm, creating a tight seal.
  • Gently push your hand back and forth toward your ear in a rapid motion, flattening it as you push and cupping it as you pull away.
  • Tilt your head down to allow the water to drain.

Apply a hot compress

  • Using hot but not scalding water, wet a washcloth. Make sure to wring out the washcloth before using it so that it doesn’t drip.
  • Tilt head downward on the affected side and apply the cloth to the outside of the ear. Leave it on the ear for about 30 seconds, and then remove it for a minute.
  • Repeat these steps four or five times. It may help to sit up or lie down on the side opposite of the affected side of your body afterward.

Use a blow dryer

The heat from the dryer can help evaporate the water inside the ear canal.

  • Set the blow dryer to its lowest setting.
  • Hold the hair dryer about a foot away from the ear and move it in a back-and-forth motion.
  • While tugging down on the earlobe, let the warm air blow into the ear.

Try alcohol and vinegar eardrops

The alcohol can help evaporate the water in your ear. Alcohol also works to eliminate the growth of bacteria, which can help prevent infection. If the trapped water occurs due to earwax buildup, the vinegar may help remove it.

  • Combine equal parts alcohol and vinegar to make eardrops.
  • Using a sterile dropper, apply three or four drops of this mixture into the ear.
  • Gently rub the outside of the ear.
  • Wait 30 seconds, and tilt the head sideways to let the solution drain out.

Use hydrogen peroxide eardrops

Hydrogen peroxide can help clear debris, earwax, bacteria, or trapped water from your ear.

  • Using a clean dropper, place three to four drops of hydrogen peroxide into your ear.
  • Wait two to three minutes.
  • Tilt the affected side downward, allowing the fluid to drain out.

Don’t use this method if you think you have any of these conditions:

  • an outer ear infection, perforated eardrum and eardrum tubes.

Try olive oil

Olive oil can also help prevent ear infection, as well as repel water out.

  • Warm some olive oil in a small bowl.
  • Using a clean dropper, place a few drops of the oil into the affected ear.
  • Lie on the  other side for about 10 minutes, and then sit up and tilt the ear downward. The water and oil should drain out.

Yawn or chew

When water gets stuck, moving your mouth can sometimes help to open the tubes. Yawn or chew gum to relieve tension in your Eustachian tubes.

Perform the Valsalva maneuver

This method can also help open closed eustachian tubes. Be careful not to blow too hard. This can damage your ear drum.

  • Close your mouth and gently squeeze your nostrils shut with your fingers.
  • Breathe deeply, and slowly blow the air out of the nose. If popping sound noticed,  it means the Eustachian tubes have opened.
  • Tilt your head to allow the water to drain from your ear.

Use steam

Warm steam can help release water from your middle ear through your eustachian tubes. Try taking a hot shower, or giving yourself a mini sauna with a bowl of hot water.

  • Fill a large bowl with hot steaming water.
  • Cover your head with a towel to keep the steam in, and hold your face over the bowl.
  • Inhale the steam for 5 or 10 minutes, and then tilt your head to the side to drain your ear.
  • 12. Try more water

This technique may sound illogical, but it can actually help draw water out of your ear.

  • Lying on your side, fill the affected ear with water using a clean dropper.
  • Wait five seconds and then turn over, with the affected ear facing down. All of the water should drain out.

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First Aid

Handling Minor Burns

First Aid: Handling Minor Burns by Famhealth
  • Gently clean the wound with lukewarm water.
  • Though butter has been used as a home remedy, it should NOT be used on any burn.
  • Rings, bracelets, and other potentially constricting articles should be removed (edema, or swelling from inflammation may occur and the item may cut into the skin).
  • The burn may be dressed with a topical antibiotic ointment like Bacitracin or Neosporin. Silvadene (silver sulfadiazine) topical is the preferred agent for most burns, and is available over the counter in many locations.
  • If there is concern that the burn is deeper and may be second or third degree in nature, medical care should be accessed.
  • Tetanus immunization should be updated if needed.

For electrical burns:

Victims of electrical burns should always seek medical care.

For chemical burns:

  • Identify the chemical that was involved.
  • Contact the Poison Control Center in your area or your local hospital’s Emergency Department. You will be automatically linked to the nearest poison control center. Many chemical burns may be treated with local wound care. Some chemicals can cause life- and limb-threatening injuries and need emergent intervention. It is recommended that the hotline phone number be stored on your cell phone as well as posted at home and at the workplace.
  • Victims with chemical burns to their eyes should always seek emergency care.

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First Aid

First Aid for Thorns and Glass

First Aid for Thorns and Glass by Famhealth

Stop the Bleeding

  • Apply direct pressure on the area.

Clean and Protect

  • Clean the area with warm water and gentle soap.
  • Use tweezers cleaned with rubbing alcohol to remove the object.
  • If the object is under the surface of the skin, sterilize a clean, sharp needle by wiping it with rubbing alcohol. Use the needle to gently lift or break the skin over the object. Lift the tip of the object out and grasp it with your tweezers.
  • Squeeze the wound gently to allow bleeding to wash out germs.
  • Apply an antibiotic ointment to reduce chance of infection.
  • Put a sterile bandage on the area.

Follow Up

  • For a minor cut, remove bandage after a couple of days to promote healing.
  • See a health care provider if the cut doesn’t heal or shows signs of infection, including redness, swelling, pus, or excessive pain.
  • Having said all this do not forget to take TETANUS immunization BY DOCTOR.

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First Aid

First Aid for Fractures

First Aid for Fracture by Famhealth

Fracturehappens when one of our bones becomes cracked or broken into multiple pieces. It can result from a sports injury, accident, or violent trauma.

Fractures usually aren’t life threatening, but they do require immediate medical care.  We should learn how to recognize the symptoms of a broken bone, provide first-aid treatment, and get professional help if needed.

Symptoms:

Fractures can cause one or more of the following signs and symptoms:

  • intense pain in the injured area that gets worse when you move it
  • numbness in the injured area
  • bluish color, swelling, or visible deformity in the injured area
  • bone protruding through the skin
  • heavy bleeding at the injury site

How to provide first aid for  fractures:

If it is suspected that someone has a broken bone, provide first-aid treatment and help them get professional care:

  • Stop any bleeding: If they’re bleeding, elevate and apply pressure to the wound using a sterile bandage, a clean cloth, or a clean piece of clothing.
  • Immobilize the injured area: If you suspect they’ve broken a bone in their neck or back, help them stay as still as possible. If you suspect they’ve broken a bone in one of their limbs, immobilize the area using a splint or sling.
  • Apply cold to the area: Wrap an ice pack or bag of ice cubes in a piece of cloth and apply it to the injured area for up to 10 minutes at a time to reduce swelling and pain.
  • Treat them for shock: Help them get into a comfortable position, encourage them to rest, and reassure them. Cover them with a blanket or clothing to keep them warm.
  • Get professional help: Call ambulance or help them get to the emergency department for professional care.You can summon professional help if you notice following things:

              — You suspect they’ve broken a bone in their head, neck, or back

              –The fractured bone has pushed through their skin

              –They’re bleeding heavily .

If the person is not breathing we can start giving CPR or help them get to the emergency department by car or other means so a doctor can diagnose their condition and recommend appropriate treatment.

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First Aid

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