Generic selectors
Exact matches only
Search in title
Search in content
Search in posts
Search in pages

Do cardio-vascular diseases affect men and women differently?

Dr. Praveen Chandra in conversation with Famhealth brings forth some essential points related to heart health on World heart Day and Do Cardio-Vascular Diseases affect men and women differently?

World Heart Day to fall on 29th September brings focus on the heart one of the most vital organs of our body which requires keeping well and intact to maintain good heart health. To discuss more on heart health Famhealth is in discussion with Dr. Praveen Chandra, Chairman, Interventional Cardiology Medanta- the Medicity, Gurugram, and Medanta Moolchand Heart Institute, Delhi.

5 Common risk factors in society

  1. Dr. Chandra says that people beyond the age of 35 develop hypertension that damages the body from within and acts as a silent killer. Unchecked hypertension can lead to early stroke and onset of kidney failures. He advises that people beyond the age of 35 should get their BP’s checked every year.
  2. Diabetes affects the heart severely and poses as a major risk factor. If a family has any history then people should remain extra cautious. People beyond 35 years of age should try to maintain their blood sugar levels in control.
  3. Smoking and tobacco are the most common factors that damage the heart therefore they should be immediately stopped.
  4. Dr. Praveen Chandra says a myth is found amongst people who usually avoid medicines if they have heart disease which is very dangerous.
  5. Lifestyle-related disorders are another commonly found risk factor that leads to heart disease. So people should maintain a very active lifestyle.

An Inter Heart study in India

Dr. Praveen Chandra says,” According to an Inter Heart Study done in India it is found that people do not exercise and in such cases, they can have heart attack 2-5 years earlier”. He further says regular exercise is a must for every individual with good vegetable and fruit intake thereby avoiding mental stress which takes a toll on our lives.

Do Cardio-Vascular Diseases affect men and women differently?

Dr. Chandra says, “Years back it was a confined notion that CVD is not common in women. However, today it has become a myth because CVD affects men and women equally. Especially after the age of 45 when menopause occurs in women which vanishes the protected effect of hormones women are equal to men to develop a heart disease”.

He further says, “Symptoms that occur in women related to a heart problem are usually perceived by family as any other common problems like gas. However, it should not happen because it leads to neglection of a major heart problem. So, symptoms should be taken in the same manner for both men and women because women are more susceptive than men to get severely affected and chances of dieing are more common in women than in men. So, one should not neglect the symptoms and consult the doctor at the earliest”.

Food and Heart Health

Dr. Chandra says, an individual with heart disease can take every kind of food to be it spices or sugar but in a controlled manner and a balanced diet should be followed.

First Aid for Resuscitation

First Aid for Resuscitation by Famhealth

Resuscitation is the process of correcting physiological disorders (such as lack of breathing or heartbeat) in an acutely unwell patient. It is an important part of intensive care medicine, trauma surgery and emergency medicine. Well known examples are : cardiopulmonary resuscitation and mouth-to-mouth resuscitation.

First aid kit contents and supplies checklist

  • Sterile dressings and plasters:
  • Plasters: Use plasters for small cuts and grazes.
  • Sterile pad: For more cushioning you can use a sterile pad and hold it in place with sticky tape. You could also use any clean, non-fluffy material, like a cloth scarf.
  • Sterile wound dressing: A sterile wound dressing is a sterile pad attached to a bandage. These are for larger wounds to apply pressure to help stop bleeding and are quick and easy to put on in an emergency.

Bandages:

  • Roller bandages: Roller bandages are long thin bandages rolled up. Use a roller bandage to support joint injuries, hold dressings in place, put pressure on wounds to stop bleeding, and to reduce swelling
  • Triangular bandages: Triangular bandages are large triangular shaped pieces of cloth. You can fold a triangular bandage to use as either a bandage or sling, or, if sterile, as a dressing for large wounds and burns.

Protective items:

  • Disposable gloves: Using disposable gloves reduces the risk of infection between you and someone you’re helping. If they’re available, always wear gloves whenever you dress wounds or deal with any body fluids or waste
  •  Face shields or pocket masks: These are designed to prevent infection when you give rescue breaths.

Other items:

  • Cleansing wipes, alcohol free wipes: To clean the skin around the wound
  • Gauze pads as dressings: To use as padding, or as swabs to clean around wounds
  • Sticky tape (adhesive tape): To hold dressings in place or to hold the loose end of bandages
  • Pins and clips: To fasten the loose end of bandages
  • Scissors, shears and tweezers: To cut sterile pads, bandages or sticky tape to the right length. You can also use them if you need to cut someone’s clothing, so that you can get to a wound, for example.

Useful extras:

  • Use kitchen film or clean plastic bags: To dress burns and scalds
  • Use alcohol gel: To clean your hands if you can’t find any water to use

For outdoors:

  • Use a blanket: To keep someone warm and protect them from the cold
  • Use survival bags: To keep someone warm and dry in an emergency
  • Use a torch: To help you see when it gets dark and to attract attention or make others aware that you’re there
  • Use a whistle: To help attract attention and get help

For the car, in case of road accidents:

  • Warning triangle: Put this on the road to warn other drivers to slow down
  • Wear a high visibility jacket: To make sure drivers can see you and reduce the risk of you getting hurt as well.

CPR with rescue breaths

Adults

  • Place the heel of your hand on the centre of the person’s chest, then place the other hand on top and press down by 5-6cm (2-2.5 inches) at a steady rate of 100 to 120 compressions per minute.
  • After every 30 chest compressions, give two rescue breaths.
  • Tilt the casualty’s head gently and lift the chin up with two fingers. Pinch the person’s nose. Seal your mouth over their mouth and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth for about one second. Check that their chest rises. Give two rescue breaths.
  • Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.

Children over one year old

  • Open the child’s airway by placing one hand on the child’s forehead and gently tilting their head back and lifting the chin. Remove any visible obstructions from the mouth and nose.
  • Pinch their nose. Seal your mouth over their mouth and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth, checking that their chest rises. Give five initial rescue breaths.
  • Place the heel of one hand on the centre of their chest and push down by 5cm (about two inches), which is approximately one-third of the chest diameter. The quality (depth) of chest compressions is very important. Use two hands if you can’t achieve a depth of 5cm using one hand.
  • After every 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute, give two breaths.
  • Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.

Infants under one year old

  • Open the infant’s airway by placing one hand on their forehead and gently tilting the head back and lifting the chin. Remove any visible obstructions from the mouth and nose.
  • Place your mouth over the mouth and nose of the infant and blow steadily and firmly into their mouth, checking that their chest rises. Give five initial rescue breaths.
  • Place two fingers in the middle of the chest and push down by 4cm (about 1.5 inches), which is approximately one-third of the chest diameter. The quality (depth) of chest compressions is very important. Use the heel of one hand if you can’t achieve a depth of 4cm using the tips of two fingers.
  • After 30 chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 per minute, give two rescue breaths.

Continue with cycles of 30 chest compressions and two rescue breaths until they begin to recover or emergency help arrives.  American Heart Association:

  • Untrained : If you’re not trained in CPR, then provide hands-only CPR. That means uninterrupted chest compressions of 100 to 120 a minute until paramedics arrive (described in more detail below). You don’t need to try rescue breathing.
  • Trained and ready to go : If you’re well-trained and confident in your ability, check to see if there is a pulse and breathing. If there is no breathing or a pulse within 10 seconds, begin chest compressions. Start CPR with 30 chest compressions before giving two rescue breaths.
  • Trained but rusty : If you’ve previously received CPR training but you’re not confident in your abilities, then just do chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120 a minute. (Details described below.)

**The above advice applies to adults, children and infants needing CPR, but not newborns.

Before starting CPR, check:

  • Is the environment safe for the person?
  • Is the person conscious or unconscious?
  • If the person appears unconscious, tap or shake his or her shoulder and ask loudly, “Are you OK?”
  • If the person doesn’t respond and two people are available, one should call 911 or the local emergency number and get the AED, if one is available, and one should begin CPR.
  • If you are alone and have immediate access to a telephone, call 911 or your local emergency number, before beginning CPR. Get the AED, if one is available.
  • As soon as an AED is available, deliver one shock if instructed by the device, then begin CPR.

Remember to spell C-A-B

Compressions: Restore blood circulation

  • Put the person on his or her back on a firm surface.
  • Kneel next to the person’s neck and shoulders.
  • Place the heel of one hand over the center of the person’s chest, between the nipples. Place your other hand on top of the first hand. Keep your elbows straight and position your shoulders directly above your hands.
  • Use your upper body weight (not just your arms) as you push straight down on (compress) the chest at least 2 inches (approximately 5 centimeters) but not greater than 2.4 inches (approximately 6 centimeters). Push hard at a rate of 100 to 120 compressions a minute.
  • If you haven’t been trained in CPR, continue chest compressions until there are signs of movement or until emergency medical personnel take over. If you have been trained in CPR, go on to opening the airway and rescue breathing.

Airway: Open the airway

If you’re trained in CPR and you’ve performed 30 chest compressions, open the person’s airway using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver. Put your palm on the person’s forehead and gently tilt the head back. Then with the other hand, gently lift the chin forward to open the airway.

Breathing: Breathe for the person

Rescue breathing can be mouth-to-mouth breathing or mouth-to-nose breathing if the mouth is seriously injured or can’t be opened.

  • With the airway open (using the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver), pinch the nostrils shut for mouth-to-mouth breathing and cover the person’s mouth with yours, making a seal.
  • Prepare to give two rescue breaths. Give the first rescue breath — lasting one second — and watch to see if the chest rises. If it does rise, give the second breath. If the chest doesn’t rise, repeat the head-tilt, chin-lift maneuver and then give the second breath. Thirty chest compressions followed by two rescue breaths is considered one cycle. Be careful not to provide too many breaths or to breathe with too much force.
  • Resume chest compressions to restore circulation.
  • As soon as an automated external defibrillator (AED) is available, apply it and follow the prompts. Administer one shock, then resume CPR — starting with chest compressions — for two more minutes before administering a second shock. If you’re not trained to use an AED, a 911 or other emergency medical operator may be able to guide you in its use5.Continue CPR until there are signs of movement or emergency medical personnel take over.

To read more on First Aid, click on the link below.

First Aid

Dealing with Stroke

First Aid: What to do with a patient who has a Stroke by Famhealth

The sudden death of brain cells due to lack of oxygen, caused by blockage of blood flow or rupture of an artery to the brain. Sudden loss of speech, weakness, or paralysis of one side of the body can be symptoms.

Stroke may cause loss of balance or unconsciousness, which may result in a fall. If you think you or someone around you may be having a stroke.

How to recognize stroke.

The most commonly used technique to identify the sign of stroke is FAST.

  • Face:Is the face numb or does it droop on one side?
  • Arms:Is one arm numb or weaker than the other? Does one arm stay lower than the other when trying to raise both arms?
  • Speech: Is speech slurred or garbled?
  • Time:If you answered yes to any of the above, call emergency services immediately.

First aid for Stroke.

  • Call emergency services. If you’re having stroke symptoms, have someone else call for you. Stay as calm as possible while waiting for emergency help.
  • If you’re caring for someone else having a stroke, make sure they’re in a safe, comfortable position. Preferably, this should be lying on one side with their head slightly raised and supported in case they vomit.
  • Check to see if they’re breathing. If they’re not breathing at all, perform CPR. If they’re having difficulty breathing, loosen any constrictive clothing, such as a tie or scarf.
  • Talk in a calm, reassuring manner.
  • Cover them with a blanket to keep them warm.
  • Do not give them anything to eat or drink.
  • If the person is showing any weakness in a limb, avoid moving them.
  • Observe the person carefully for any change in condition, and be prepared to tell the emergency operator about their symptoms and when they started. Be sure to mention if the person fell or hit their head.

To read more on First Aid, click on the link below.

First Aid

HEART HEALTH

A healthy human heart beats about 2.5 billion times over the
average lifetime. The heart is a muscular organ, which pumps
blood through the blood vessels of the circulatory system. Blood supplies
our organs with oxygen and nutrients, and helps in the removal
of metabolic wastes.

Heart Health

According to centre of disease control there are various health conditions which can lead to heart disease. Some major contributory factors are genetics, age, poor lifestyle, age and family history. Genetics, age and family history are the factors which cannot be controlled. However, one can adopt a good lifestyle and can choose to eat a healthy diet to prevent heart diseases.

Risk factors causing heart diseases:

Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

High blood pressure is one of the prime risk factors for heart disease. It is a medical condition resulting due to an excessive pressure of blood in arteries and other blood vessels. Hypertension is regarded as the one of the prime causes of major heart conditions like heart attack.

High blood pressure is also referred to as “silent killer”, as most of the people do not observe the symptoms of high blood pressure. However, high blood pressure can be controlled with a right diet, medication and a healthy life style.
 
High Cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fat-like, waxy thin, substance which is naturally produced by liver. However, consuming foods rich in saturated fats can lead to high cholesterol levels in our blood. The excess cholesterol gets deposited in the walls of the arteries which leads to their narrowing, thereby leading to major heart diseases like atherosclerosis and heart attack.

Diabetes

Diabetes mellitus another major risk factor of heart disease. The body needs sugar for providing energy and in normal circumstances pancreas produces enough insulin for the sugar to get utilized. However, in diabetes either no insulin or less insulin is produced by the body leading to sugar accumulation in the blood.

Major Heart Diseases

Angina

Angina is also known as chest pain or discomfort caused when the heart muscle is devoid of enough oxygen-rich blood. Angina patients may experience heaviness or tightness in the chest which can even radiate to arms, neck, jaw, back or stomach. Angina is an alarming condition of a major heart disease and should not be ignored.

Management of Angina

Treatment for angina not only reduces the symptoms but also minimizes the risk for heart attack and death.

Treatment options include:

  • Modifications in the lifestyle such as quitting smoking, managing weight, eating right, keeping stress at bay, and controlling diabetes
  • Taking medications like calcium channel blockers, satins (as prescribed by doctor)
  • Treatment like stenting, coronary artery bypass (depending what doctor opts for)
  • Cardiac rehabilitation post cardiac procedure which aims for physical fitness, minimize cardiac symptoms, and improves the overall health, and lowers the risk for heart problems in the future

Aortic Stenosis

Aortic stenosis is one of the most prevalent and most severe valve diseases of the heart which occurs due to obstruction of blood flow across the aortic valve. Affected patients may suffer from complications like chest pain, fainting, and heart failure which might lead to shortness of breath. This condition could be genetic or age related.

Management of Aortic Stenosis

Treatment for aortic stenosis depends on symptoms and the extent of the disease.

Mild disease may not require any treatment; however, a regular ECG is done by the doctor to forecast any complication. In severe cases the treatment includes:

  • Replacing the aortic valve: Aortic valve replacement is the only effective treatment for severe aortic stenosis.
  • Medications: There is no specific medication for this condition, however blood pressure is controlled to prevent further complications.

Atherosclerosis

Atherosclerosis is a disease in which plaque builds up inside the arteries, which eventually causes blockage and limiting the flow of oxygen-rich blood to your organs. It is one of the prime causes of heart attacks, strokes, and peripheral vascular disease together called cardiovascular disease.

Management of Atherosclerosis

Lifestyle management-Eating a healthy diet

A healthy diet is primarily a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and low in refined carbohydrates, saturated, trans fats, and sodium.

Some simple ways are to switch from white to whole-grain bread, eating fruits and vegetables rather than refined food items, using olive oil instead of solid fats like butter, and reducing sugar and sugar substitutes to a greater extent.

  • Quit smoking– According to the Mayo Clinic- for  heavy smoker, quitting is the single most effective way to stop atherosclerosis from getting worse and reduce risk of complications
  • Maintain healthy weight– obese individuals are more prone to heart disease. Hence, a person should try to maintain a healthy weight.
  • Manage Stress– Keep the body relaxed; try deep breathing, meditation, and yoga to keep stress at bay. .
  • Medications and Surgery– Doctor may prescribe medication like cholesterol medication, anti-platelet medication, and calcium channel blockers. Surgery includes angioplasty, endarterectomy and bypass grafting

Atrial Fibrillation

Atrial fibrillation (also referred to as AFib or AF) is the most common type of abnormal heart rhythm (arrhythmia) which can cause complications like blood clots, stroke, heart failure and other heart-related complications.

Management of Atrial Fibrillation

The atrial fibrillation treatment depends on how long the patient has had atrial fibrillation, acuteness of symptoms and the underlying cause of atrial fibrillation. Generally, the treatment goals for atrial fibrillation are to:

  • Reset the rhythm or control the rate
  • Prevent blood clots
  • Decrease the risk of strokes

Tips for Healthy Heart

  • Abstaining from smoking
  • Managing blood cholesterol
  • Controlling High Blood pressure
  • Keeping a check on diabetes
  • Exercising and being physically active
  • Maintaining weight
  • Eating nutritious diet
  • Consuming less salt and sugar
  • Keeping stress at bay

Sources:

Heart Health Support Groups

These inspiring stories of those who have overcome Diabetes will keep you motivated