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IMMUNIZATION

Recommended Immunizations

Immunization is a process wherein a person’s natural immune system
is triggered to protect the person from a particular infection in the,
future. This is done by giving the person a vaccine, which contain disease
causing germs that are either dead or too weak to cause any disease.
These vaccines stimulate the body’s immune system to produce antibodies
that protect the body from disease causing germs.

Immunization

Vaccine 1451610001

The Indian Association of Paediatrics (IAP) recommends the vaccination scheduled that is followed in India.

At birth- The baby is given

  • BCG injection (for protection against tuberculosis)
  • Oral polio drops (OPV for polio)
  • Hepatitis B immunization

At six weeks – It is recommended that the baby be given shots of

  • DTP (protects against diphtheria, whooping cough and tetanus)
  • IPV (injectable polio vaccine) this protects against polio
  • Booster for protection against hepatitis B infection
  • HIB vaccine This protects the child from a type of meningitis
  • Rotavirus vaccine To protect the child from a type of diarrhea
  • PCV – this vaccine protects against pneumococcal disease that can cause serious infection of the blood, meningitis and ear infections

At ten weeks the baby should receive booster doses of

  • DTP
  • IPV
  • HIB
  • Rotavirus vaccine
  • PCV

At fourteen weeks, the baby should ideally be immunized with booster doses of the following vaccines

  • DTP
  • IPV
  • HIB
  • Rotavirus vaccine
  • PCV

At six months, the baby should receive booster doses of

  • Oral polio vaccine (OPV)
  • Hepatitis B vaccine

At nine months, it is recommended that the baby receive immunization with

  • OPV
  • MMR vaccine This protects against mumps, measles and rubella infections

Between nine to twelve months, the baby should be immunized with

  • Typhoid vaccine this protects against typhoid infection.
  • Once the baby is a year old, there is a need to protect the baby against hepatitis A infection, which is mainly a water borne infection that infects the liver.

At 15 months of age, the child should be immunized with

  • MMR booster dose
  • Varicella vaccine to protect against chicken pox
  • PCV booster

Between 16 to 18 months of age, the child should ideally receive the following vaccines

  • DTP booster
  • IPV booster
  • HIB booster
  • Hepatitis A booster dose

At 2 years of age, the child should receive a booster of the typhoid vaccine.

Between 4 to 6 years, the child should receive booster doses of

  • DTP
  • OPV
  • Varicella
  • MMR

Between 10 and 12 years of age there is a need to receive booster doses of

  • HPV vaccine for girls this protects against infection by human papilloma virus that can cause cancer of the genital tract in women.
  • TD vaccine for protection against diphtheria and typhoid

Immunization is also recommended for adults

  • Pregnant women need to be immunized against tetanus. This is achieved by giving two doses of TT vaccine a month apart at 4 and 5 months of pregnancy.
  • Every person is advised to get immunized against tetanus by taking a booster dose every 10 years
  • In addition, an annual influenza vaccine is recommended for people over 50 years of age, single dose of zoster vaccine for people over 60 years of age and a single dose of pneumococcal vaccine for people over 65 years of age.
  • If a person works in an environment where there is risk of exposure to blood products or sexual contact with high risk people, like sex workers, then immunization against hepatitis B is recommended. 
  • Immunization against typhoid is recommended in case the person travels frequently or there is an outbreak in the community.
  • Immunization against hepatitis A is recommended for people who are considered at risk, like I/V drug users or those with other liver related issues.
  • In certain high risk areas, immunization against Japanese encephalitis and cholera is done too.

Sources

https://familydoctor.org/pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccine

https://www.webmd.com/children/vaccines/hib-h-influenzae-type-b-vaccine#1

https://www.iapindia.org

https://medlineplus.gov/immunization

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4928530