1. Home
  2. >
  3. Infocus Detail
  4. >
  5. Mosquitoes and Diseases

MOSQUITOES AND DISEASES

It’s Reasons and Prevention

Ever wondered –What is the deadliest of all the creatures
on the earth? Yes, they are no other than mosquitoes. More than a
million people die as a result of the diseases spread by these
nasty creatures and mosquitoes related diseases affect about 700
million people in the world. In India, not only in Delhi but southern
states like Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu accounted for
more than half of the mosquito-borne diseases, in the year 2015-16.
Mosquito related diseases have risen multifold due to a spike
in the global warming.

Mosquitoes and Diseases

The Sting Image 1024x576

Mosquito-borne diseases result primarily due to viruses, bacteria or parasites and are transmitted by mosquito bite.

Here is a list of Top 5 diseases caused by mosquitoes in India

1. Dengue

Dengue is a viral mosquito-borne transmitted disease and is caused by female mosquito known as Aedes. This mosquito bites in early morning hours and late evenings, usually before the sunset and holds the capacity to bite multiple people at the peak of its breeding period. The symptoms of dengue usually start appearing after 4-5 days after the mosquito bite and generally last for 2-7 days after the infection.

What symptoms I may have, if I suffer from dengue?

Dengue is associated with high fever (104°F) and usually results in 2 of the other below mentioned symptoms:

  • Severe headache
  • Pain behind the eyes
  • Pain in the muscles and joints
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Swollen glands or rash

How do I know, if dengue getting lethal?

Severe abdominal pain, continuous episodes of vomiting associated with blood, frequent breathing, bleeding from the gums, fatigue, restlessness are some of the symptoms which indicate that disease has progressed towards the fatal state. Consult the doctor immediately and look for an early treatment advice.

2. Malaria

Malaria is a parasitic form of mosquito-borne transmitted disease and is caused by four different species of the Plasmodium (P) known as P. falciparum, P. malariae, P. vivax, and P. ovale.

How the malaria infection spreads?

Transmission of malaria follows a series of chain

What all the malarial symptoms?

  • Chills ranging from moderate to severe
  • High fever
  • Sweating
  • Headache
  • Vomiting
  • Diarrhea

If malaria not treated well could lead to below mentioned complications:

  • If malarial parasite enters and clogs the blood vessels in the brain, this condition is known as Cerebral malaria
  • Fluid retention in the lungs leading to difficulty in breathing
  • Organ failure such as spleen, kidneys or liver.
  • Anemia
  • Low blood sugar

3. Japanese encephalitis

Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a viral form of mosquito-borne transmitted disease and is caused Culex species of mosquitoes. Pigs and birds are the prime hosts for this virus. Japanese encephalitis attacks the brain and spinal cord and if not treated well in time, could be fatal.

Symptoms

  • Symptoms appear in less than 1% of people infected with JE
  •  Symptoms start appearing after 5-15 days of the mosquito bite.
  • Early symptoms often include fever, headache, and vomiting.
  • One may land up having other symptoms such as shift in the mental change, weakness, and movement disorders.
  • Young children may also experience seizures.

4.Chikungunya

Chikungunya is a viral mosquito-borne transmitted disease and is caused by female mosquito known as Aedes, the virus which causes dengue.

Signs and Symptoms include

  • Sudden onset of fever along with joint pains, joint pain may last for several months, or even years.
  • Muscle pain
  • Headache
  • Nausea
  • Fatigue
  • Rash
  • Upset belly

Do you know some few more mosquito-borne transmitted diseases?

  • Yellow fever
  • Zika fever
  • Western equine encephalomyelitis virus
  • Eastern equine encephalitis
  • West Nile virus
  • Ross River fever

When I am at risk factors and how can I combat those risks for developing mosquito borne illnesses?

Living or travelling in tropical and subtropical countries-If it can’t be avoided follow below steps to avoid insect bites:

  1. Use a mosquito repellent
  2. Plan your day outdoor activities, when mosquitoes are less active
  3. Wear full covered clothes
  4. Never allow water to stand near your vicinity
  5. Use a mosquito net
  6. Keep the air circulated by using fans. It will make mosquitoes difficult to fly near you

Sources:

http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/111008/WHO_DCO_WHD_2014.1_eng.pdf;jsessionid=40677D88B5AA81EA3A74835DFC67F3B7?sequence=1

https://www.dhhs.nh.gov/dphs/cdcs/arboviral/documents/prevention.pdf

http://www.mosquito.org/page/diseases

https://blog.mosquito.buzz/6-diseases-spread-by-mosquitoes

http://www.mosquitoworld.net/when-mosquitoes-bite/diseases/

https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/outdoor/mosquito-borne/default.html

http://www.floridahealth.gov/diseases-and-conditions/mosquito-borne-diseases/prevention.html

https://www.ebmedicine.net/topics.php?paction=showTopic&topic_id=405

https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/malaria/symptoms-causes/syc-20351184

https://www.cdc.gov/japaneseencephalitis/index.html