A heart attack is a medical emergency. Call 108 or your local emergency number if you think you or someone else is having a heart attack.
The average person waits 3 hours before seeking help for symptoms of a heart attack. Many heart attack patients die before they reach a hospital. The sooner the person gets to the emergency room, the better the chance of survival. Prompt medical treatment reduces the amount of heart damage.
A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle becomes starved for oxygen and begins to die.
Symptoms of a heart attack can vary from person to person. They may be mild or severe.
Symptoms in adults may include:
Changes in mental status, especially in older adults.
Chest pain that feels like pressure, squeezing, or fullness. The pain is most often in the centre of the chest. It can last for more than a few minutes, or come and go.
Numbness, aching, or tingling in the arm (usually the left arm, but the right arm may be affected alone, or along with the left).
Shortness of breath.
Weakness or fatigue.
If you think someone is having a heart attack:
Have the person sit down, rest, and try to keep calm.
Loosen any tight clothing.
Ask if the person takes any chest pain medicine such as nitroglycerin for a known heart condition help them take it.
If the pain does not go away promptly with rest or within 3 minutes of taking nitroglycerin, call for emergency medical help.
If the person is unconscious and unresponsive, call 108 (or your local emergency number) and begin CPR.
Continue CPR till the person recover or you get a medical support
How to do CPR?
Check the response
Check the carotid pulse for less than 10 second.
If in case of feeble pulse or no pulse start CPR. Perform 30 compression and 2 breathing and continue the cycle
Do NOT leave the person alone except to call for help if necessary.
Do NOT allow the person to deny the symptoms and convince you not to call for emergency help.
Do NOT wait to see if the symptoms go away.
Do NOT give the person anything by mouth unless a heart medicine (such as nitroglycerin) has been prescribed.
Adults should take steps to control heart disease risk factors whenever possible.
If you smoke, quit. Smoking more than doubles the chance of developing heart disease.
Keep blood pressure, cholesterol, and diabetes in good control and follow your health care provider’s orders.
Lose weight if obese or overweight.
Get regular exercise to improve heart health.
Eat a heart-healthy diet.
Limit the amount of alcohol you drink. One drink a day is associated with reducing the rate of heart attacks.
To read more on First Aid, click on the link below.
Experts say trans fats are not good for heart health. Trans fats are found in deep fried food items and oily food items. This is because trans fat clogs your arteries by raising your bad cholesterol levels (LDL) and lowering your good cholesterol levels (HDL). By cutting them from your diet, you improve the blood flow throughout your body.
Dental health is a good indication of overall health, including your heart, because those who have periodontal (gum) disease often have the same risk factors for heart disease. Bacteria in the mouth involved in the development of gum disease can move into the bloodstream. These bacteria can cause inflammation of the bold vessels, which may increase your risk of heart disease and stroke.
Sleep is an essential part of keeping your heart healthy. If you don’t sleep enough, you may be at a higher risk for cardiovascular disease no matter your age or other health habits. It is suggestive to make sleep a priority. Experts recommend a good 7 to 8 hours of sleep.
Research has shown that staying seated for long periods of time is bad for your heart health no matter how much exercise you do. Experts say it’s important to move throughout the day. Some easy steps are – Park farther away from the office, take a few shorter walks throughout the day and/or use a standing work station.
Studies show that the risk of developing heart disease is about 25 to 30 percent higher for people who are exposed to secondhand smoke at home or work. According to the American Heart Association, exposure to tobacco smoke contributes to about 34,000 premature heart disease deaths. Try to maintain a distance from passive smokers.
SILVER YEARS – PHYSICAL/MENTAL/EMOTIONAL WELL BEING
Some Diseases Associated With Old Age
Old age is also known as senescence. Normally silver years or old age is defined as period of the life from 60-65 years. A regular exercise and eating a well balanced diet can help to fight against many infections and diseases associated with the old age.
Silver Years- Physical/Mental/Emotional Well Being
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), if proper health care measures are taken after 65 years of age ,one can live for an another 19.3 years.
According to Jeanne Wei, MD, PhD, executive director of the Reynolds Institute on Aging at the University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences in Little Rock, people who adopt healthy lifestyle choices, like quitting smoking and losing weight, can help you avoid age related health risks.
Here is a list of some diseases associated with old age:
According to CDC 49.7 percent of elderly suffer from arthritis. Elderly mostly suffer from painful condition called osteoarthritis, which is painful and limits mobility in elderly.
2. Heart Disease
Elderly with risk factors, such as high blood pressure and high cholesterol, that increase the chances of have a high tendency of developing cardiovascular diseases like stroke. Eating well balanced and frequent meals along with exercise can prevent elderly from the heart related disorders.
As per the CDC reports, 28 percent of men and 21 percent of women over age 65 are living with cancer. Hence regular checkups like mammograms, colonoscopies, and skin checks can prevent different type of cancers.
4. Respiratory Diseases
CDC has reported that chronic lower respiratory diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), are the third most common cause of death among people 65 and older. Elderly suffer from chronic respiratory infections such as asthma, chronic bronchitis or emphysema. These problems can make elderly to easily fall for conditions like pneumonia. Early checks can prevent the pneumonia in elderly.
5. Alzheimer’s Disease
As per the Alzheimer’s Association, one in nine people age 65 and older, which is about 11 percent, have Alzheimer’s disease, but because diagnosis is challenging, it’s difficult to know exactly how many people are living with this chronic condition. Diagnosing this disease at an early stage can help to deal with it an early stage.
Osteoporosis is also an age-related problem in elderly, especially in women. Osteoporosis can contribute towards less mobility and a deranged stature in elderly.
According to CDC 25 percent of people ages 65 and older are living with diabetes. It is necessary to check for pre diabetes conditions and monitoring blood sugar levels can help to control the disease.
8. Influenza and Pneumonia
According to the CDC ,flu and pneumonia infections are among the top eight causes of death in people over age 65. Seniors are more vulnerable to these diseases and less able to fight them off. Vaccination can prevent elderly to fall for these infections .
As per the CDC repots, 2.5 million people ages 65 and older are treated in emergency departments because of falls. Elderly should walk carefully and should refrain from using slippery bath rooms.
Obesity is an important senior health risk factor for heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. It also decreases the motility in elderly leading to various complications such as high blood pressure and atherosclerosis.
According to CDC many elderly suffer from depression. Support from friends and family and increased social interaction can prevent depression in elderly.
12. Oral Health
Oral health becomes compromised in elderly due to functional and physiological changes. Elderly are advised to visit dentist after every 6 months for a regular assessment. Dentures and oral rehabilitation measures are taken by the dentists to restore the dental health in elderly.
According to the National Institutes of Health, one out of three people over 60 will get shingles. People who suffer from chicken pox in childhood uaually encounter shingles as they grow with age. A good immune system and good health status helps elderly to recover from shingles at a faster pace.
Immune system helps to fight against the infections and the diseases, and acts lifelong in preventing against the infections and the diseases. A weakened immunity makes a person to fall sick immediately.
What does research say in improving the immune function?
Research is continually being made and shown how diet, exercise, age, psychological stress, and other factors influence the immune system of the adults and the children.
Adopt healthy life style habits such as:
Good hygiene-Practice good hygiene methods such as properly wash your hands before consuming food. Maintain good sanitary hygiene methods.
Vaccination- Go for all the mandatory vaccinations required under national immunization programme.
Food Safety-Eat fresh, healthy and clean food
Clean water- Drink chlorinated and safe water.
Refrain from smoking
Consume a diet rich in fresh fruits and vegetables.
Keep your weight under check
Take adequate sleep.
Take important steps to keep stress at bay.
Some herbs which can boost the immune system:
Research has shown that the benefits of following herbs, supplements and essential oils which have been found in building the immunity:
A 2012 study published in Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine found that Echinacea was found beneficial in fighting against some recurrent infections, and showed a great benefit in preventing against many infections.
A 2003 study conducted at the University of Wisconsin Medical School demonstrated that Echinacea can boost the immune system. Echinacea was found beneficial in stimulating and boosting the immunity and was found beneficial in fighting against upper respiratory tract infections
Hippocrates, the father of medicine realized the importance of the plant elderberry considering its great health benefits, including its ability to fight colds, the flu, allergies and inflammation. Studies have indicated that elderberry has the power to boost the immune system, especially because it has proven to help treat the symptoms of the common cold and flu.
A study published in the Journal of International Medical Research found that using elderberry within the first 48 hours of onset of symptoms, the extract reduced the duration of the fly
Silver was a popular to stop spreading the diseases since ancient times. Silver has been recognized as a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. Research published in the Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine demonstrated that colloidal silver was able to significantly inhibit the growth of bacteria.
Taking one drop of the colloidal silver everyday and applying it on the wounds yields great benefits.
It has been found that an unhealthy gut is a major cause of food related infections, cause autoimmune disease and immune imbalance or a weakened immune system. Probiotics such as yogurt, curd release good bacteria which help to boost the natural immunity.
A research published in Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition suggests that probiotic bacteria may induce different cytokine responses. Probiotics consume at the infancy have proved to improve the immune response and builds the immunity to fight infections.
Astragalus is a plant which belongs to the bean and legumes family. Traditional Chinese Medicine has used this plant to build the natural immunity.
A recent review published in the American Journal of Chinese Medicine found that astragalus-based treatments have shown great benefits in the improvement of the toxicity induced by drugs such as immune suppressants and cancer chemotherapeutics. Researchers concluded that astragalus extract has a beneficial effect on the immune system, and it protects the body from gastrointestinal inflammation and cancers.
Indian Ayurveda medicine has relied on ginger’s ability for how to boost your immune system before recorded history. It’s believed that ginger can remove the toxins primarily due to its warming effects. It’s also known to cleanse the lymphatic system, our network of tissues and organs that help rid the body of toxins, waste and other unwanted materials.
Ginger root and ginger essential oil can be used to treat infections and diseases with its immune nutrition and anti-inflammatory responses. Ginger also has antimicrobial property, which helps in treating infectious diseases.
Vitamin D can modulate the innate and adaptive immune responses and a Vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased autoimmunity as well as an increased susceptibility to infection. Research shows that vitamin D works to maintain tolerance and promote protective immunity. There have been multiple cross-sectional studies that associate lower levels of vitamin D with increased infection.
One study conducted at Massachusetts General Hospital included 19,000 participants, and it showed that individuals with lower vitamin D levels were more likely to report a recent upper respiratory tract infection than those with sufficient levels, even after adjusting for variables such as season, age, gender, body mass and race. Sometimes addressing a nutritional deficiency is how to boost your immune system.
Some other foods which can boost the immune system are:
Oats and Barley
How to Boost Your Immune System with Lifestyle Changes
One must perform exercises on a routine basis to strengthen your immune system. A 2018 human study published in Aging Cell revealed that high levels of physical activity and exercise improve the immune senescence (gradual decline of the immune system) in older adults aged 55 through 79, compared to those in the same age group who were physically inactive. Healthy ageing can be achieved with help of the exercise and good physical activity.Few points as a precaution:
These herbs and medicines taken to boost the immune system should be used in moderation and gap should be given in their consumption. They are highly potent in their nature so must be consumed at regular intervals
Avoid their use if you are pregnant or use them under the guidance of your doctor.
Human body consists of 70% of the water. Water is present both inside and outside the body cells. Most of our organs such as liver, kidneys and skin are composed of water. But, if there is an excessive accumulation of water, it results in water accumulation, which is termed as water retention or fluid accumulation.
One may experience a sudden swelling, puffiness or bloating of feet, ankles, hands, fingers and face. Usually it is misinterpreted as a weight gain and even hard exercising fails to remove this water retention from the body.
Water Retention-What exactly it is?
Water retention also known as is defined as an excessive build-up of fluid in the circulatory system, body tissues or cavities in the body which can lead to swelling of the hands, feet, ankles and legs.
Various factors result in water retention in the body. Some factors are as below:
Diet: Foods high in salt content such as chips, fast foods and processed food like meats can cause water retention in the body. Cold drinks can also result in water retention.
A low protein diet: A low protein diet can lead to albumin deficiency in the body, which also causes the water retention.
Decreased physical activity: Sitting or standing in a sedentary position for a longer period of time can also result in water retention in a particular area. You may observe it after having a long air journey or if you are travelling by a bus.
Hormonal changes: Women commonly experience a bloaty feeling especially during their menstrual cycle. Fluid retention causes painful breasts in women during menstrual cycle. Other symptoms include abdominal bloating and weight gain. Even some hormonal therapies lead to water retention
Hot weather: During hot weathers, our body tends to be less efficient in removing fluid from the tissues.
Some medical conditions such as nephritic syndrome, acute glomerulonephritis water, chronic lung disease like emphysema, malignant lymphoedema, thyroid disease, arthritis, allergic reactions, and autoimmune reactions like lupus also result in water retention.
Some common symptoms of water retention are:
Swelling in the affected body parts such as feet, ankles and hands
Bloaty feeling in the stomach
Pain in the swelled area
Sudden increase or decrease in the weight
An increased weight gain
How water retention is diagnosed?
A physical examination is usually performed by a physician
Medical history of the patient is taken
A detailed review of the edema is done, doctor sees what factors promote and decrease the swelling
A blood examination is recommended
Liver function tests
Kidney function tests
Heart function tests such as electrocardiogram (ECG)
What is the treatment of water retention?
After having a complete diagnosis, the treatment is done to treat the cause. Modifications in the diet, exercise and life style changes are generally introduced by the doctors to suppress edema. Below are some methods by which water retention is eliminated from the body:
Treating the causative factor which results in water retention
Lifestyle changes depending upon the medical condition
Water retention can be drug-induced also, hence doctor might replace those drugs with some other alternative drugs
Water pills (Diuretics) can help to eliminate retained water as it increases the urinary flow
It has been observed that light exercising at times is also beneficial in removing the water retention
Some tips by which you can remove the water retention from the body
Eat a low salt diet, as high intake of sodium in the salt can cause water retention
High intake of vitamin B6 decreases the water retention. Eat foods rich in vitamin B6 such as banana, potatoes, walnuts and meat
Include potassium rich food as they decrease the sodium levels in the body. Bananas and tomatoes are rich source of potassium
Drink lots of water
Avoid having refined foods
Avoid drinks like alcohol as it causes water retention
Eat fresh fruits and vegetables
Raise your legs several times a day to reduce the water retention
Avoid sitting and standing still for too long, keep moving between work
Avoid hot baths or sauna as they also increase the body fluid retention