Common Eye problems
Some of the common eye problems which are prevalent are as below:
- Myopia (nearsightedness)
- Hypermetropia (farsightedness)
- Astigmatisms (blurry vision)
- Presbyopia(an inability to focus on objects up close).
Most of these vision problems can be easily treated with the help of eyeglasses, contacts, or surgery. However, serious eye problems such as age-related macular degeneration, cataracts, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma can lead to major eye health problems and loss of vision, if left untreated.
Some major eye health problems include:
- Refractive errors
- Optic neuritis, an inflammation of the optic nerve
- Retinal diseases, such as a retinal tear or detachment
- Macular degeneration
- Diabetic eye problems, such as diabetic retinopathy and diabetic macular edema
Signs and Symptoms of Eye diseases
Most of the eye problems cause difficulty in vision; one must immediately see a doctor on developing below mentioned signs and symptoms
- Discharge from the eyes or watery eye
- Flashes of light
- Light sensitivity
- Vision loss
Treatment for Eye disease
Vision problems like nearsightedness and farsightedness can be treated with glasses or contacts.However, serious eye diseases may require a combination of medications and surgery to be treated. A yearly eye- check up helps in detecting eye conditions in their early stages and it prevents the further complications.
Here, a few common eye disease treatments:
- Refractive surgery, a procedure that can help correct refractive errors, such as nearsightedness or astigmatism (LASIK is a type of refractive surgery).
- Corneal transplantation which is targeted to remove the damaged cornea with healthy ones.
- Oral steroids, medications that can treat inflammatory eye conditions.
A brief description about some of the Eye problems is as below:
Glaucoma is an eye disease in which fluid pressure increases in the eye, which damages the optic nerve. If left untreated, individuals with glaucoma can lose their vision and eventually become blind, and the disease is one of the leading causes of blindness .Doctor usually treats glaucoma with eye drops or surgery, which helps to slow down the disease’s progression and prevent vision loss. People can develop glaucoma at any age, but it usually affects older adults.
Cataracts are a clouding of the eye’s lens, leading to blurry vision if left untreated can even lead to loss of vision. They often develop as people age, when the proteins in the eye begin to clutter togetherand cause cloudiness, which hampers the normal vision. Older individuals who have a history of smoking or those who are obese, have high blood pressure, take certain medications, or have diabetes have a greater risk of developing cataracts.
Surgery is the only treatment of cataracts; it cannot be treated by medications.
Conjunctivitis (pink eye)
This condition causes inflammation and redness in the eye. This is caused by viruses, bacteria, allergens, chemicals, and even a loose eyelash or dirty contact lens.
This condition leads to swelling of the eyelids, watery eyes, itching, burning, crusting, or discharge. This condition can easily spread and is highly contagious.
Macular degeneration is an age related eye degeneration which damages the central vision. There are two types of macular degeneration,
- Wet AMD – Happens when blood vessels grow under the retina;
- Dry AMD- 80% of all macular degeneration cases are in this subgroup and usually occurs when the retina thins over time.
To prevent the further development of the disease “eye vitamins” may help to slow down the progression; however, there is no cure for the disease.
Sties are red, pimple-like bumps, which results in the blockage in one of the eyelid’s oil glands.Sties usually appear near the eyelid. Sties are associated with sensitivity to light, pain watery eyes and difficulty in opening eyes. Home remedies include applying a warm wash cloth to the bump.It usually goes away on its own but at times antibiotic treatment is required to curb it.
Red eye is a sign of some infection or allergy, which happens when the blood vessels in the eye become inflamed. Visit your eye doctor to find out the exact cause and treatment to cure the red eye.
Other Eye conditions:
- Chalazion: Sometimes mistaken for a sty, a chalazion is a red, swollen bump that can spring up on the eyelid when the eyelid’s oil glands become clogged.
- Color blindness: This condition is less common in women, and around 8% of men have color blindness, difficulty distinguishing between shades of similar colors.
- Eye floaters: They appear as spots in front of the field of vision, eye floaters arecaused by changes in the eye’s vitreous humor, a jelly-like substance. They do not pose any harm to the eye. However, if they are associated with flashes of light, one may experience a posterior vitreous detachment, which could lead to a retinal tear or detachment. In such case, one must go and see a doctor immediately.
- Dry eye: In this case eye fails to produce tears which can keep the eye moist. This can lead to blurry vision, burning, or itchiness.Using artificial tears or a prescription medication usually gives a relief.
- Diabetic retinopathy: An eye disease that affects people with diabetes, diabetic retinopathy occurs when high blood sugar levels damage the blood vessels in a person’s retina, which can eventually lead to vision loss.
- Eye strain: Wearing the wrong prescription glasses or contact lenses can cause your eyes to feel tired or uncomfortable. Also it has been found that over usage of electronic screens such as tablets, television and computers can cause eye strain.